JANUARY I FEBRUARY I MARCH 2005
13 Public libraries pack a powerful $$$ punch 17 WorldCat Collection Analysis debuts
both generations happy
No. 267 ISSN: 0163- 898X
Getting and keeping
Public libraries continue to help entrepreneurs get their start.
The investment you make in your local library helps small businesses.
It also brings in additional tax dollars, raises property values and
creates new jobs. In fact, studies have shown that:
for every $ 1 spent on the library,
a community sees an average of $ 4 in return.
Who knows what Gallo success story is at your library, right now?
Go to www. oclc. org/ roi/
to learn about the
economic impact of
YOUR PUBLIC LIBRARY
IS A SMALL BUSINESS
Great American winemaking
started in a library.
In 1933, Ernest and Julio Gallo
needed a wine recipe
to start their business.
Where did they turn for help?
Their local library.
There, they found the pamphlet
“ The Principles of Winemaking.”
They started to make wine,
pursued their dream— and
the rest is history.
Three generations later,
Gallo wines earn worldwide
acclaim as Matt and Gina Gallo
carry the family dream forward.
Their small business has
grown to create hundreds
of jobs, thousands of
opportunities and millions
of satisfi ed customers.
© 2004, E. & J. Gallo Winery. All rights reserved. Study quoted is from www. slpl. lib. mo. us/ libsrc/ resresul. htm
JANUARY I FEBRUARY I MARCH 2005 2
C OV E R S TO RY
07 The Big Bang!
As Gamers and Boomers collide in one of the biggest
culture clashes in history, society is being reshaped. What
will the impact be on libraries? And how can libraries
attract Gamers and serve both generations?
A DVOC A C Y
13 Public libraries pack a $$$ punch
Today’s public libraries are more than technology centers,
book repositories, quiet reading spaces, coffee shops or busy
community centers. They are engines that pump millions
of dollars into local and state economies.
O C LC P RO D U C T S A N D S E RV I C E S
17 WorldCat Collection Analysis debuts
The new service makes it possible to analyze and compare
online the age, subject content and uniqueness of your
collection with peer libraries.
04 FROM JAY JORDAN
15 TIPS AND TRICKS
16 OCLC LABS
17 OCLC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES
19 OCLC RESEARCH
21 BY THE NUMBERS
JANUARY I FEBRUARY I MARCH 2005
June 20, 2005
See the complete title lists at
www. oclc. org/ info/ subjectsets/
OCLC Newsletter MC235
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1- 800- 848- 5878
Send questions, comments,
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OCLC offices and affiliated
partners, visit the OCLC Web
site at: www. oclc. org
The OCLC Newsletter
( ISSN: 0163- 898X) is published
by OCLC Corporate Marketing
and is distributed at no charge.
Its contents may be reproduced
in whole or part provided that
credit is given.
All products and services named
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their respective companies.
ISSN: 0163- 898X
Carrie Benseler, Brad Gauder,
Bob Murphy, Phil Schieber,
Layout and Design
All photos by Rich Skopin
unless otherwise noted.
In October 2005, we will complete the migration of
OCLC services to our new technological platform, a
journey that we began in 2000. Back then, we shared
with member libraries a strategy that called for us not
only to build a new technological platform, but also to
extend the cooperative through new membership
categories, introduce new services, transform WorldCat
and, ultimately, weave libraries into the Web and the
Web into libraries.
Since then, we have begun interweaving libraries
and the Web through programs such as Open
WorldCat, which links people using search engines
such as Google and Yahoo! Search to library catalogs
and holdings, and the Yahoo! Toolbar, which is a
free, cobranded toolbar that provides one- click
access to Open WorldCat.
We have revised our governance structure and
introduced new services such as Connexion,
QuestionPoint, WebJunction, ILLiad, NetLibrary,
CONTENTdm and other digitization/ preservation
services. In short, we have accomplished much of what
we said would do in our 2000 strategic plan.
Now, we are developing an ambitious agenda for
the future that builds on our new platform and our
investment. Our updated plan is a result of an
ongoing process that involves consulting with the
Board of Trustees, Members Council, regional service
providers, advisory committees, individual libraries
and users, and OCLC staff.
Let me share with you our key objectives for 2006
and beyond, and projects that support these objectives.
Become as good at helping libraries manage
digital collections as we have been at helping them
manage print collections.
Create in WorldCat and the OCLC PICA GGC
Catalogue a knowledge base of serials available in
electronic form and their holdings in libraries.
Develop a link registry for maintaining links from within
OCLC and OCLC PICA services to library OPACs and
Launch OAI harvesting of metadata records.
Support ingest of non- MARC 21 formats into
Implement a terminology service to link WorldCat to
authority files, DDC and other classification schemes,
Deliver OCLC and library services and collections
at point of need.
Expand Open WorldCat with enhanced services,
additional partners and new funding models.
Syndicate delivery of OCLC cataloging records to
large materials providers.
Make OCLC services available through Web services
for integration into other environments and applications.
Become the premier e- content provider of choice
for libraries, publishers, distributors and other
Syndicate e- book delivery through additional channels.
Add new types of e- content.
Create seamless access to e- content.
Improve the way we deliver products and services.
p r i c i n g a n d i m p l e m e n t
subscription pricing for
interlibrary loan and cataloging
services, thereby enabling
libraries to streamline their
workflows and take full
advantage of OCLC services
without worrying about
Optimize effectiveness of
distribution channels with
U. S. regional service providers
and distributors worldwide
through improved coordination and communication,
training, incentives and planning.
These key objectives comprise the major priorities in
our development schedule for the foreseeable future. At
the same time, we will continue to maintain and enhance
our core services in cataloging, resource sharing and
reference. We must continue, however, to look ahead,
anticipate environmental shifts and adapt our strategy in
order to preserve the long- term viability of the
cooperative and provide ever increasing value to libraries.
OCLC President and Chief Executive Officer
JANUARY I FEBRUARY I MARCH 2005 4
FROM JAY JORDAN
Looking Ahead: An Ambitious Agenda
OCLC HAS DEVELOPED AN ADVERTISING
campaign on behalf of libraries, aimed at
library budget decision- makers. The
campaign consists of a series of national
print ads and local, customizable posters.
The ads appear outside the traditional library
trade press, and the message promotes
libraries, rather than OCLC or its services.
The campaign kicked off with two
advertisements: one for academic libraries
and one for public libraries. Visit the Web
site to see the ads and then customize a
poster to help raise awareness in your
To download the ads and learn more about
the program, visit www. oclc. org/ advocacy./.
IN JANUARY 2005, OCLC LAUNCHED
the expanded QuestionPoint suite of
reference services. This suite results
from the merger of QuestionPoint and
the 24/ 7 Reference service in August
2004. The foundation of the suite is a
comprehensive reference management
service that combines the best features
of QuestionPoint and 24/ 7 Reference.
The growing 24/ 7 Reference cooperative
uses this foundation to offer libraries an
affordable means for round- the- clock
service delivery. Users from both
communities now have access to
the merged service through a
To learn more about the new service suite
and to follow the transition activities of
2005, visit www. questionpoint. org.
Making the case for
libraries: OCLC’s 2005
Best of both worlds
5 OCLC Newsletter
JANUARY I FEBRUARY I MARCH 2005 6
“ Boa notícia”
WebJunction receives new grants
Records from Brazilian e- library added to WorldCat
About 40,000 records describing and linking to articles from 130 top Brazilian scientific and technical
journals are now available in WorldCat, the OCLC Online Union Catalog. Scientists, researchers, students and
other users can access these records and the corresponding article text at no additional cost via WorldCat
on the OCLC FirstSearch service. The articles are in English, Portuguese and Spanish and are published in
the Scientific Electronic Library Online Brazil. For more information, visit www. scielo. br/.
From the Bill & Melinda
partnered with four U. S.
state libraries to provide
local workshops that
will enable library staff
to better meet the
technology needs of
Spanish speakers in
( MPAC) Program
WebJunction will offer
new tools and services
that will allow public
libraries to better
sustain public access
Part of the MPAC
program will be to
create a skills- based
partner with U. S. state
libraries to empower
rural library staff to
better manage and
sustain public access
WebJunction will develop
a national clearinghouse
for library education and
From the Institute of
Museum & Library Services
7 OCLC Newsletter
P rominent sociologists note that a subtle
but large- scale shift is quietly taking place
in popular culture today. About 77 million
Baby Boomers, who have shaped and
dominated society since the mid 1960s, are
approaching retirement. And their influence
on art, music, fashion, business, politics—
almost every category imaginable— is
waning to a new generation most aptly
THE BIG As Gamers and Boomers collide in one
society is being reshaped. What will
Trendwatching. com calls them Generation C. ABC
News calls them Millennials. But to John C. Beck
they are simply the Gamer generation.
This generation, born after 1970 and raised on video
games, is about four to five years away from
dominating society, says Beck, President of the
North Star Leadership Group, a management
consulting firm, and Senior Research Fellow at the
University of Southern California’s Annenberg
Center for the Digital Future.
The experience of games has molded a generation
with these characteristics, according to Beck.
Motivated. Gamers are competitive and love a
challenge. Winning is very important. They are
motivated to contribute and to earn their way
through whatever hurdles it takes. They believe that
anything is possible and that they are capable of
amazing things. However, they do not have an
appreciation for doing things “ just because.”
Resilient. Failure isn’t the end of the world;
gamers have each failed thousands of times on the
way to whatever success they have had with games.
Crashing and burning isn’t so bad, they believe, and
persistence pays off in the end.
Confident. Gamers think of themselves as
experts and want to tackle problems head on. They
are used to being the hero and have a more positive
outlook on life than nongamers. They are more
flexible about change. They are ready to be great
Sociable. Since a lot of gaming is done with
friends and over the Internet, gamers value other
people and have a greater need for human
relationships than other groups. They are great team
players and are very loyal to the teams and
organizations of which they are a part.
Analytical. Gamers learn from the games they
play. By sampling so many different realities through
games, they become very good at seeing problems
in a deeper, strategic perspective and at handling
risk and uncertainty. They believe that taking
measured risks is the best way to get ahead.
C O V E R S T O R Y
Gamers Time calls them Twixters.
JANUARY I FEBRUARY I MARCH 2005 8
BANG! of the biggest culture clashes in history,
the impact be on libraries? BY TOM STOREY
Boomers Born from 1946 to 1964, the Baby Boom
Generation is about 77 million Americans, or
roughly 28 percent of the current U. S. population.
Their name was coined for the explosion in the
birth rate after World War II, and they have been
shaped by the Cold War; the space race;
assassinations of John F. Kennedy, Bobby Kennedy
and Dr. Martin Luther King; the Vietnam War; the
civil rights movement; Woodstock; and Watergate.
In less than 10 years, the entire Baby Boom
generation will be over 50 and set to revolutionize
the meaning of retirement, just as they have led
other social revolutions throughout their lives.
Boomers still think of themselves as young and
continue to seek adventure. They expect fulfillment
in their careers and many expect to keep working
past traditional retirement age.
Career- driven. Money, title and recognition are
important to most Boomers. They are ambitious
and want a stellar career, sometimes at the
expense of family time, as evidenced by the high
divorce rate among Boomers. Gamers, on the
other hand, want freedom and flexibility, and work
that has meaning.
Materialistic. Boomers were raised to expect
more than their parents and they have been on a
buying spree for most of their adult lives. Their
estimated annual spending power is $ 2.1 trillion.
Skeptical. Boomers have relatively little
confidence and trust in some of society’s major
institutions, such as government, corporations and
churches. They have doubts about the role of the
U. S. on the global stage and a feeling that the U. S.
is losing power around the world.
Independent. Boomers feel they are special
and prize their individuality. Rules are made to be
broken if breaking them leads to good
experiences and personal growth. Unlike their
conservative parents, Boomers disdain authority
and traditional values.
Idealistic. When they were growing up,
Boomers believed that a single human being could
positively change the world. Today, they are ready
to turn their golden years into an intense time of
social activism, volunteerism and lifelong learning.
C O V E R S T O R Y
called Gamers, those born after 1970 and
raised on video games.
Gamers are very different from any
generation that has come before them. And,
with 90 million strong, organizations that
don’t understand or acknowledge them run
the risk of becoming increasingly isolated
generation- shaping activity that,
over time, will reshape behavior
patterns, beliefs, arts, business,
institutions— the entire culture.
His book, Got Game, which he
co- authored with colleague
Mitchell Wade, explains the
impact the Gamer generation
will have on society.
Consultant and author Marc
Prensky, who has written
Digital Game- Based Learning,
agrees that video games are
changing the rules. “ Today’s
average college grads have
spent less than 5,000 hours of
their lives reading, but over
10,000 hours playing video
games. Today’s students
think and process information
fundamentally differently from
Hollywood directors have
n o t i c e d t h e i m p a c t o f
games as well and are
giving them star treatment.
To attract the gamer
generation to the movies,
video game characters are
f i n d i n g t h e i r w a y i n t o
movies, such as Lara Croft
appearing in Tomb Raider.
JOHN BECK is the
President of the North Star
Leadership Group, a management
consulting firm, and Senior Research
Fellow at the University of Southern
California’s Annenberg Center for the
Digital Future, a policy and research
center devoted to studying new
communication technology and its
impact on individuals, communities
and societies around the globe. He
graduated summa cum laude with a
bachelor’s degree in East Asian studies
and sociology from Harvard University,
where he also earned his doctorate in
organizational behavior. In addition to
the Gamer generation, his research
focuses on global leadership, e-commerce,
media and entertainment,
strategy development, group psychology
and the impact of the Internet.
Beck stumbled across the importance of
video games and the Gamer generation
while working on his book The Attention
Economy, where he discovered that Web sites
with a game component capture and hold
people’s attention better than any other.
After a survey of more than 2,000 professionals
and hundreds of interviews, he is convinced
that video games are not an insignificant
pastime played by spike- haired nerds but a
9 OCLC Newsletter
C O V E R S T O R Y
In the next five years, Gamers will be the
dominant demographic for your libraries.
Nonetheless, you don’t want to do anything that
will offend or chase Boomers from the stacks.
The key to securing and retaining these growing
segments is giving each one what it wants. To
serve and attract both Gamers and Boomers,
Create zones in your library
Gamers are technologically savvy
and can take in multiple streams
of information while they
socialize. They multitask! They
need a space with all kinds of
simultaneous activities— music,
television, video streaming,
computers. They thrive on all of
the commotion. The Boomer zone
should be much quieter. They
need technology and service but
not the noise.
Expand your AV collection
For Boomers, that means movie
DVDs and audiobooks, as well as
the traditional books, magazines,
newspapers, videotapes, books-on-
tape, CDs— the “ staples” of
your collection. Start adding video games and their
strategy guides— the Gamers’ cheat sheets— to the
mix to get Gamers in the library more often.
Know each culture Can you “ power up” or
“ level out?��� That’s common video game lexicon.
Are you up to speed on the hottest new game? Try
a few games to see what they are like and why
they are so compelling. How well- versed are you
on the latest trends in health care and financial
planning? Those are common Boomer interests.
Research and study both of these generations.
Know their interests and characteristics.
Go global You can feed that global curiosity of
both generations with information from your print
collection that helps them understand the world.
Most of the high quality international resources in
your collection are not digitized, so users can’t get
them from the Internet.
Be a guide Leaders and bosses are not to be
trusted is what Gamers learn while playing video
games. Boomers also have a healthy distrust
for authority. Position yourself
as strategy guides and not
gatekeepers to help Gamers and
Boomers win, something that’s
important to both.
Personalize your Web site
This is very important to the
Gamer generation but also will
serve Boomers well. Update your
site often; Gamers are drawn to
constant change. A search
experience at your digital library
that’s as exciting and as personal as
the experience in video games will
attract them. In addition, Boomers
also are becoming accustomed to
personalized online services due to
their experiences with search
engines and Amazon. Create an
area for Boomers with topics that
interest them. Develop interactive capabilities to allow
Boomers to connect with each other.
Be attentive This is easy for librarians, where
service and open access are part of their core
values and everyday practice. Gamers and
Boomers both demand attention. Don’t hide
behind the reference desk. Take a retail approach.
Proactively approach Gamers. Ask if you can offer
them materials to supplement what they are using
or reading. For Boomers, show them the range
of electronic resources you have that can
complement their needs.
How to create environments for
Boomers and Gamers in your library
JANUARY I FEBRUARY I MARCH 2005 10
C O V E R S T O R Y
Zone in on your users
Gamers need social space. Boomers need “ a third place.”
Toddlers need storytelling terrain. Seniors need quiet areas. Everyone
needs technology. And many want coffee! Opened in September
2004, the new 144,000- square- foot Evansville Vanderburgh Public
Library, Evansville, Indiana, creates space for each of these
audiences. The library has a Teen Zone for Gamers complete with a
bank of computers, outlets for laptops, a collection of audiobooks
and a network for wireless and PDA devices. And it’s right next to the
Cup and Chaucer café and garden. The library also has activity
rooms, a technology center, a children’s story area, a popular
materials section and a quiet study rotunda. Other newly opened
libraries, such as Seattle Public and Salt Lake City Public, also have
built special spaces to accommodate the wide range of users
C O V E R S T O R Y
Boomers and Gamers love hand-held
electronic devices, so they
would fit right in at Curtin University
of Technology, Perth, Australia.
Students, faculty and staff there are
using cell phones and Blackberries
to reach their favorite librarians. A
new “ SMS a Query” service lets
them send text- based messages of
up to 160 characters to librarians
from anywhere, at anytime. SMS
stands for Short Message Service.
Deputy Librarian John Frylinck says
early student feedback praises the
service as an easier, cost- effective
way to find an answer to a simple
query. “ Since the student population
at Curtin has clearly embraced
mobile phone culture and SMS
technology, SMS a Query offers
another way of servicing a large
To embrace Gamers and bring
them into the Santa Monica Public
Library in California, Miguel Acosta,
Principal Librarian, Information
Management, organized a LAN
( Local Area Network) party with the
help of the library’s Teen Advisory
Council. The idea was to connect
with this new generation and begin
grooming them as future library
users. The success of the party
led to poetry slams, animated
festivals, Yu- Gi- Oh tournaments
and a number of new members of
the Teen Advisory Council.
JANUARY I FEBRUARY I MARCH 2005 12
C O V E R S T O R Y
Send a librarian anSMS
T oday’s public libraries are more than
technology centers, book repositories, quiet reading
spaces, coffee shops or busy community centers.
They are engines that pump millions of dollars into
local and state economies.
That’s the conclusion of two recently released
studies by the University of South Carolina and the
State Library and Archives of Florida. Using surveys,
interviews and economic modeling, the two studies
showed the sometimes forgotten financial impact
that libraries have and how important they are to
creating jobs, raising wages and improving the
financial well- being of a community and state.
Among the findings from the
In Florida, public libraries return $ 6.54 for every
$ 1 invested in them. The value of libraries is $ 2.9
billion, based on library wages and spending
and the cost of replacement services and lost
local spending. Federal, state and local funding is
$ 449 million.
One job is created for every $ 6,448 spent on
public libraries from public funding sources. That
means an estimated 68,700 jobs were created in
2004, generating wages of $ 5.6 billion.
Gross regional product increases by $ 9.08
for every $ 1 of public support spent on
For every $ 1 of public support spent on public
libraries, income ( wages) increases by $ 12.66.
Whether they use libraries for personal,
educational or work- related purposes, residents
indicated that they saved 57.6 million hours and
$ 2.4 billion.
Public libraries provide a direct economic
benefit of $ 6 billion per year to Florida’s
13 OCLC Newsletter
Public libraries pack a powerful $$$ punch
They mean big bucks for their states, communities
BY TOM STOREY
communities and population, based on an average
benefit of $ 97 per 62 million uses by businesses,
educators, students and the general public.
In 2003/ 2004 there were 68.3 million in- person
visits to public libraries in Florida and at least 25.2
million remote Internet connections to public libraries.
In addition, Florida’s public libraries stimulate
an economic ripple effect valued at $ 4 billion, the
study says. This includes direct in- state expenditures
by public libraries for books,
periodicals, electronic equipment
and resources, as well as large capital
projects, such as library construction
More than 2,380 individuals and
169 organizations participated in the
groundbreaking study, which was the
first of its kind ever completed in the
state. It was conducted by: José-
Marie Griffiths, Dean and Professor,
School of Library and Information
Science, University of North Carolina
at Chapel Hill; Thomas Lynch and
Julie Harrington, Director and
Assistant Director, Center for
Economic Forecasting and Analysis,
Florida State University; and Donald
King and Christinger Tomer, Research
Professor and Associate Professor, School of Information
Services, University of Pittsburgh.
To view or download the study, go to dlis. dos. state.
fl. us/ bld/ roi/ index. cfm.
The University of South Carolina study values the
impact of the state’s public libraries at $ 347 million.
Faculty members from the School of Library and
Information Science conducted this study in two
phases. The first phase involved surveying 3,689
general library users, 161 businesses, 298 job seekers
and 172 personal investors to determine their
perceived value of the library. In phase two, researchers
placed a dollar value on library services, based on usage
statistics from the State Library, to determine the
economic benefit to the state.
Key findings from the study:
South Carolina’s public libraries return $ 4.48 to the
state’s economy for every $ 1 invested in them.
South Carolina’s public libraries pump $ 347 million
into the state’s economy; the state spends
approximately $ 77.5 million on public libraries.
South Carolina’s public libraries provide $ 102
million and $ 26 million annually in circulation and
reference services, respectively.
South Carolina’s public libraries
bring nearly $ 5 million to the state
from federal and private sources.
About half of the businesses
surveyed use the library as a
primary resource for business
and research information; three
quarters of them said that the
library contributed to the success
of their businesses and that not
having access to a public library
would have a negative impact on
Business owners reported saving
up to $ 5,000 by getting information
( economic data, government
regulations, legal and technical
information, as well as information
on management, marketing and
sales) from the library.
About 90 percent of general users said that libraries
improved overall quality of life and 47 percent said
they help increase local property values.
Nearly half of the personal investors surveyed said
that investment information from the library definitely
contributed to their financial well- being.
The project was developed by the School of Library
and Information Science at the University of South
Carolina in collaboration with the South Carolina
Association of Public Library Administrators and
the South Carolina State Library. Researchers were:
Daniel D. Barron, Director; Robert V. Williams,
Professor; Stephen Bajjaly, Associate Professor; Jennifer
Arns, Assistant Professor; and Steven Wilson,
The study can be downloaded at www. libsci. sc. edu/
SCEIS/ home. htm.
According to the
effect valued at
$ 4 billion.
JANUARY I FEBRUARY I MARCH 2005 14
15 OCLC Newsletter
Deep linking enables Web users to link
from search results ( in Yahoo!, Google or
other partner sites) to the Find in a Library
interface in Open WorldCat, and then
directly to the item’s record in their library’s
online public access catalog ( OPAC).
Deep linking represents the last link in the
Open WorldCat chain, getting Web users
outside the library environment from their
broad Internet searches all the way to the
initiation of circulation activity at the
Creating “ deep links” is fast and simple to
do. To ensure deep links to your library’s
OPAC, you should register the appropriate
URL link structure for the OPAC;
FirstSearch libraries can do this quickly in
their administrative module, while libraries
without FirstSearch accounts can register
by using the Open WorldCat feedback
form, available at https:// www3. oclc. org/
The downloadable deep linking tutorial
explains how to set up deep linking and
includes a chart of URL structures for
various Integrated Library Systems ( ILS).
Download the Open WorldCat deep linking
tutorial at: www. oclc. org/ worldcat/ open/
deeplinking/ openworldcat_ deeplinking. pdf
Library staff can track the amount of online
traffic driven to their resources from the
Open WorldCat interface on the statistics
site at www. stats. oclc. org.
Libraries that have WorldCat holdings but
currently do not have a subscription to the
WorldCat database on FirstSearch must
purchase an unlimited subscription to keep
their holdings visible in the Open WorldCat
interface beginning July 1, 2005.
For more information about the Open
WorldCat Program and deep linking, visit
www. oclc. org/ worldcat/ open/.
OCLC and Safe Sound Archive have signed an agreement to provide digitization
services for libraries’ audio collections, including digital reformatting, archiving and
improved access through Open WorldCat. The new partnership will provide a
convenient, integrated digital audio archive solution through OCLC Content
Conversion Services and Safe Sound Archive. The first project is a pilot for
Columbia University to digitize 203 hours of sound recordings and 11,864
typewritten pages of interviews from the Notable New Yorkers oral history collection.
OCLC, Safe Sound Archive to work together to
digitize and preserve audio collections
Access through Open WorldCat will enhance visibility and use
The collection contains interviews with individuals such as: Edward Koch, U. S.
Public Official, Congressman and Mayor of New York City from 1977– 89; Bennett
Cerf, Publisher and Founder of Random House; and Frances Perkins, U. S. Secretary
of Labor from 1933– 45 and the first woman to serve in a Presidential Cabinet.
“ Through the partnership with Safe Sound Archive, OCLC is able to extend its
service offerings to audio preservation. OCLC can now provide seamless
preservation service by reformatting all collection components,” said Christine
Guenther, Senior Digital Project Manager, OCLC Preservation Services.
“ Historically, OCLC has primarily served libraries, while Safe Sound Archive has
worked with archives and libraries. Through this partnership we are able to provide
a broader range of services to many more audiences and collections,” said George
Blood, Principal, Safe Sound Archive.
For more information, visit www. oclc. org/ preservation/ or www. safesoundarchive. com/.
JANUARY I FEBRUARY I MARCH 2005 16
17 OCLC Newsletter
OCLC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES
he new OCLC WorldCat Collection Analysis service
makes it possible for library staff responsible for collection
management to analyze the age and subject content of
their own collections, compare their collections with those
of peer libraries, and compare, as a group, the level of
overlap or uniqueness of their collections.
The new service is designed to provide the most cost-effective
way to routinely evaluate collections. It enables
library staff to communicate collection decisions to faculty,
boards of trustees and administrators, as well as
demonstrate financial needs and responsible stewardship of
library acquisitions, budgets and collections.
“ The WorldCat Collection Analysis service is
incomparable in the library community because it
leverages the cooperative effort of thousands of librarians
around the world who have built— and are continuing to
build— WorldCat,” says Phyllis Spies, Vice President,
OCLC Collection Management Services.
WorldCat is the world’s richest database of items held in
libraries, comprising more than 58 million records that
represent nearly 1 billion holdings. The WorldCat database
grows at the rate of one new record every 10 seconds. The
OCLC WorldCat Collection Analysis service provides
tools for libraries to mine the deep, rich database that
thousands of librarians worldwide collectively maintain as
part of their daily workflow.
The WorldCat Collection Analysis service allows library
staff to view and analyze the age and content of their own
collections by subject, and compare their library’s holdings
with the holdings of peer libraries, and limit the analysis to
specific subject areas. For example, an academic library
considering an Italian language program might compare its
collection to other college libraries already offering such a
program. Or, a public library might want to demonstrate
the strength of its small business management collection
by comparing its holdings with those of peer libraries.
For groups, the service provides an affordable way to
evaluate group collections and validate cooperative
collection activities. The service allows libraries to review
collection gaps, the degree of overlap of their collections
OCLC WorldCat Collection Analysis debuts
Libraries can run collection analysis online with easy access to
58 million records and nearly 1 billion holdings in WorldCat
BY BOB MURPHY
JANUARY I FEBRUARY I MARCH 2005 18
with others and their uniquely held titles. The results are
provided in formatted reports.
The OCLC WorldCat Collection Analysis service is
now available to any library with its holdings in
WorldCat that also subscribes to WorldCat through the
OCLC FirstSearch service. Libraries that would like to
use the collection analysis service but do not currently
have holdings in WorldCat can load their records into
WorldCat at no charge.
From the staff view of the FirstSearch interface, library
staff can perform a variety of collection analysis and
collection management tasks in real time once a
comparison project has been set up. In the past,
collection analysis projects could take months to
complete. OCLC can set up a project for a library within
24 to 72 hours, depending on the scope of the job. Once
the project is set up, collection analysis can be completed
online, instantaneously, through WorldCat.
“ Librarians and staff need to know what they have
in their collections, and they need to know where
there might be gaps in their collections,” says Glenda
Lammers, Product Manager, OCLC WorldCat
Collection Analysis. “ They need to know what
materials they have in common with libraries that are
part of their group, and they need to know what
unique items they have to offer. If libraries know
exactly what materials are accessible to them, then
they are better able to decide what they need to buy,
digitize or preserve.”
WorldCat Collection Analysis software is centrally
hosted at OCLC, offering subscribers a low- cost, easy- to-use
system technically supported by the OCLC
Customer Service Division and Network Services staff.
The OCLC WorldCat Collection Analysis service is
available for all libraries and all collections, regardless of
the types of materials to be analyzed, the type of library
or the integrated library system used. A library that
subscribes to the OCLC WorldCat Collection Analysis
service may compare its collection to any library that
maintains holdings in WorldCat.
Over the last year, OCLC has been working closely
with libraries to develop the collection analysis service,
and librarians have been enthusiastic about its potential.
“ The response has been overwhelming,” says Ms.
Lammers. “ Collection analysis has always been an
extremely labor- intensive project��� it’s time consuming
and ultimately can be very expensive. There are not many
automated tools available for analyzing and comparing
collections to peers. Libraries want an automated tool
that can do this for them quickly, and the WorldCat
Collection Analysis service can do this— and more.”
The WorldCat Collection Analysis
service leverages the cooperative
effort of thousands of librarians
around the world.
19 OCLC Newsletter
ver the last year OCLC Research has been
experimenting with the application of
parallel processing to searching and
processing large files of bibliographic
records, such as those in WorldCat. For this
we acquired a 24- node computer
configured in what is known as a Beowulf
cluster. This type of configuration is
becoming very popular for scientific
computing because it’s cheaper to connect many
small machines together than to build a single
machine with the same computational power. We have
found that this type of machine works just as well for
bibliographic processing. In this, we are following the
lead of Google and other large- scale Web search and
gaming engines that employ similar configurations.
A small supercomputer may sound like an oxymoron;
how can a ‘ supercomputer’ be ‘ small’? The main
difference between our computer and some of the
largest computers built for scientific computation is that
our machine has 24 nodes in it rather than the
thousands of nodes the largest commercial machines
have. To put this in perspective, however, our machine
has approximately the speed of the fastest machine in
the world ten years ago ( which probably cost about one
thousand times as much as ours!).
We obtained the machine to investigate parallel
text searching. At OCLC we have always searched our
databases in parallel, but in as few pieces as we could.
In this project we took the opposite approach— to
break our database into as many pieces as we could,
search each at the same time, and then deal with the
coordination needed to return a single result to a
searcher. We are finding this works very well for
searching, but, more generally, we have found it to be
useful for virtually any work with large numbers of
bibliographic records. WorldCat now contains well
over 55 million records, even accounting for records
that have been deleted and merged over the years.
Since our cluster has 24 separate nodes with a total
of 48 processors, we typically get 30- fold speedups
in processing, and occasionally much more than
that because the entire database can be cached in
A 30- fold speedup means that processes that
previously would take a month can be done in 24 hours.
Tasks that took a day now take less than an hour. One of
the more dramatic speedups is to extract records based on
a sequential scan of the whole database. That can be done
in three seconds, rather than 20 minutes.
The organization of the cluster consists of one head
node that controls all the others and manages all outside
communication; 23 compute nodes, each with 4
Gigabytes of memory and two Xeon CPUs; and a Cisco
gigabit switch that enables the nodes to communicate.
Beyond text searching, where we’ve been able to do
well over 100 searches per second using open- source
tools, we have been doing much of our FRBR work on
FRBR stands for “ Functional Requirements for
Bibliographic Records,” an IFLA report that, among
other things, describes an approach for grouping
records into ‘ works.’ For example, searching a work-based
database for Shakespeare’s Hamlet might retrieve
a whole set of records, each of which is a different
edition ( or expression in FRBR terms). Our work has
been primarily in identifying those works quickly and
reliably and understanding the relationship that
Experiments with a small supercomputer
With fail- over and load balancing software, these clusters could become
reliable enough for many services in the future
BY THOMAS B. HICKEY, Ph. D., Chief Scientist, OCLC Research
Breaking WorldCat up into 69 pieces results in less than a million
JANUARY I FEBRUARY I MARCH 2005 20
library authority files have with FRBR sets.
The processors in the cluster are ‘ hyperthreaded,’ a
technique used by Intel on its Xeon chips, so that
logically each of the physical chips appears to be two
logical processors, giving us a total of 92 logical CPUs
on the 23 compute nodes. Typically we use three of
those logical processors, reserving one for
communication with other nodes. Breaking WorldCat
up into 69 pieces ( three per node) results in less than a
million records that each processor needs to cope with,
greatly easing many tasks. Our ‘ FRBRization’ of
WorldCat can now be done in less than an hour, and
searches can be completed in milliseconds.
So, why isn’t all bibliographic processing done on
such machines? There are at least two main reasons.
The first is that this sort of configuration is relatively
new, and relatively few sites deal with the tens of
millions of records that make this level of parallelism
important. Another issue is that Beowulf clusters are
designed more for speed than reliability. Google has
pioneered technology in this area with redundant file
systems and data centers, but since they do not use
standard cluster software, this is not available in the
open- source Linux cluster distribution we have been
using ( called ROCKS). Reliability is less of an issue in
a research context, but our experience ( once we got past
some ‘ teething’ problems) is that the cluster has been
very stable. As part of our research we are looking at
ways that we can duplicate our data across nodes. With
fairly simple fail- over and load balancing software,
these clusters could become reliable enough for many
services in the future.
records that each processor needs to cope with, greatly easing many tasks.
BY THE NUMBERS
1 Personality and Individual Differences
2 Social Science & Medicine
3 Journal of Interpersonal Violence
4 Early Child Development and Care
5 Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
6 Journal of the American Academy of
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
7 International Journal of Eating Disorders
8 Psychological Reports
9 Journal of Social and Personal
10 Biological Psychiatry
21 OCLC Newsletter
Books and journals most borrowed using the OCLC
Interlibrary Loan Service September 2003– February 2005
1 The Da Vinci Code: A Novel Dan Brown
2 Natural Cures ‘ They’ Don’t Want You to
Know About Kevin Trudeau
3 New Soldier John Kerry
4 Doyle Brunson's Super System: A Course
in Power Poker Doyle Brunson
5 Angels & Demons Dan Brown
6 The Woman with the Alabaster Jar: Mary
Magdalen and the Holy Grail Margaret
7 Power vs. Force: The Hidden
Determinants of Human Behavior David R.
8 Free Monday to Pay Your Bills Matthew Lesko
9 The Secret Life of Bees Sue Monk Kidd
10 The South Beach Diet: The Delicious, Doctor- Designed, Foolproof
Plan for Fast and Healthy Weight Loss Arthur Agatston
The OCLC cooperative
Governing Members 8,653
Libraries outside the United States 10,332
Countries and territories served 96
Format Number Percentage Locations of
of records of total items cataloged
Books 45,936,770 83.79% 870,822,101
Serials 2,631,498 4.80% 28,377,292
Visual materials 1,818,886 3.32% 17,564,782
Maps 799,239 1.46% 3,946,086
Mixed materials 245,112 0.45% 254,419
Sound recordings 1,910,388 3.48% 21,851,178
Scores 1,263,335 2.30% 9,564,480
Computer files 221,568 0.40% 1,039,290
Totals 54,826,796 100.00% 953,419,628
as of January 2005
JANUARY I FEBRUARY I MARCH 2005 22
Highest OCLC record number ( as of March 12, 2005) 58,460,070
Languages in WorldCat 458
Total OCLC Interlibrary Loan requests ( as of April 1, 1979) 143,534,376
Watch WorldCat grow— a new record and 13 new holdings are added every 10 seconds: www. oclc. org/ worldcat/ grow.
OCLC offers a broad selection of e- content for library users who
need resources on psychology and related subjects. These resources
include three databases from the American Psychological Association on
the OCLC FirstSearch service; several hundred thousand WorldCat
records on psychology and related subjects that are linked to library
holdings worldwide; extensive content in other FirstSearch databases such
as MEDLINE and ERIC; 2,400 NetLibrary eBooks; and 310 e- journals.
Web users will also discover materials offered by WorldCat and NetLibrary
through the Open WorldCat program.
Visit www. oclc. org/ netlibrary/, www. oclc. org/ audiobooks/,
www. oclc. org/ electroniccollections/ and www. oclc. org/ firstsearch/
for more information on these resources.
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Check the OCLCWeb site for a complete list of upcoming conferences.
www. oclc. org/ education/ events/
Washington Library Association
April 20— 23, 2005
British Columbia Library Association
Burnaby, British Columbia
April 21— 23, 2005
Saskatchewan Library Association
April 21— 23, 2005
Montana Library Association
April 23– 26, 2005
Alberta Library Conference
Apr 28— May 1, 2005
Manitoba Library Association
May 2— 4, 2005
Maryland Library Association
Ocean City, Maryland
May 4— 6, 2005
May 24— 27, 2005
Atlantic Provinces Library Association
Halifax, Nova Scotia
May 26— 29, 2005
OCLC will be exhibiting at the following events >
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